The study of human emotions and personality provides valuable insights into the p arameters of mental health and well-being. Affective neuroscience proposes thatseveral levels of emotions – ranging from primary ones such as LUST or FEAR up to higher emot ions such as spirituality – interact on a neural level. The present study aimed to furth er explore this theory. Furthermore, we hypothesized that personality – formedby bottom-up primary emotions and cortical top-down regulation – might act as a linkbetwe en primary emotions and religious/spiritual well-being.
The relationship between substance use disorders (SUD) and brain deficits has been studied extensively. However, there is still a lack of research focusing on the structural neural connectivity in long-term polydrug use disorder (PUD). Since a deficiency in white matter integrity has been reported as being related to various parameters of increased psychopathology, it might be considered an aggravating factor in the treatment of SUD.
This pilot study examines personality characteristics using the Five Factor Model combined with measures of Sensation Seeking and religious/spiritual well-being in two Austrian samples of substance abusers. Sixty-three male addicts (33 polydrug dependents, 30 alcohol dependents) treated in a therapeutic community setting were tested with the Neo Personality Inventory Revised Version, the Sensation Seeking Scale, and the Multidimensional Inventory for Religious/Spiritual Well-Being. Results show significant personality differences between alcohol and polydrug abusers.
Aims: Present research suggests that stress and anxiety are playing an important role in origin and perpetuation of substance use disorders (SUD). This study examined if patients with SUD differed from healthy controls in their anxiety, their psychological and physiological stress-task-related- and general stress-coping. Methods: 41 patients with SUD diagnosed by ICD- 10 are compared with 41 healthy students as controls.
Theoretical Background: Current literature shows that patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) exhibit reduced relative alpha power and increased beta power in the EEG (Hatch et al., 2010). Neurofeedback as operant conditioning technique is supposed to lead to an increase of positive therapy outcome by changing long-lasting EEG frequency patterns and by regulating the “hyperarousal” found in AN patients (Gunkelman & Johnstone, 2005).
In total 420 persons of both sexes were examined: Religiosity and spirituality were investigated in clinically well characterized detoxified addicts (N=120), depressive in-patients (N=100), and persons with no psychiatric diagnosis/treatment in their biography (N=200) using a Multidimensional Inventory for Religious-Spiritual Well-Being (MIRSWB 48) in combination with the Centrality Scale (C-Scale) and the Structure of Religiosity Test (RST). Personality dimensions were investigated using the Six Factors of Personality Test (6F Test).
Introduction: Various disciplines describe hope generally as an essential aspect of being human from birth to death. Hope can take the form of longing and significantly motivate one to adopt a different path in life and it also might serve as part of one’s coping strategy in the therapy process. The study focus was on the concept of hope concerning the immanent and transcendent area of perception. Immanent and transcendent hope should be connected to different parameters of mental health and illness.
The Multidimensional Inventory for Religious/Spiritual Well-Being (MI-RSWB) was originally developed in German language at the University of Graz (Austria). It deals with the different facets of religiosity and spirituality and their link to psychological well-being. The scale makes a differentiation between the immanent and transcendent field and consists of three subscales relating to the immanent area (Hope Immanent, Forgiveness, and Experiences of Sense and Meaning) and three relating to the transcendent one (General Religiosity, Hope Transcendent, and Connectedness).
Introduction: There has been a steadily growing interest in religious/spiritual issues in several areas of psychology in recent years. However, progress in this field is being hampered by the lack of reliable and valid measures of assessment for different facets
of religiosity/spirituality. Motivated by our positive experience with the German speaking version of the so-called Multidimensional Inventory for Religious/Spiritual Well-Being, we developed an English-speaking version of this scale (MI-RSWB-E) in order to make it accessible for a broader scientific audience.